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complex assemblies

Metal BGA

Electronics have become essential to daily life. Everything from refrigerators to military aircraft contains electronics. Today’s critical advanced assembly challenges mainly fall into three categories: performance, usability and productivity. To build and visualise product designs quickly and economically, engineers must address all these challenges.

On the other hand, manufacturing techniques are becoming more advanced and aesthetics are increasingly in demand. Project lifecycles and budgets are constrained. Sometimes, these constraints mean that DFM standards are overlooked in PCB design. For example, if the PCB has to fit in a box of fixed dimensions, the PCB design has to be tweaked accordingly. Or, components with different reflow profiles may be used on the same sid

Newer design houses or inexperienced engineers and designers may be prone to these mistakes. But not validating designs with tool and industry standards is bad practice. Here are just a few examples:

Pad mismatch

 If the copper termination pad separates partially or completely from the board, it can be hard to identify the fault; the pad may look intact as the solder usually remains attached to the component. The cause is usually mechanical strain that begins during testing, manufacturing, vibration while being transported or even when connectors are attached. PCB performance is impaired and performance is inconsistent. Extensive or even destructive testing may be required to positively identify the cause. Podrain follows a painstaking process to minimise the risk of damage from pad mismatch at each step.

No silkscreen. 

The silkscreen does not impact the electrical functionality of a PCB, but it is still extremely valuable as it provides essential information when assembling the PCB. It provides simple visual feedback that helps to catch deeper problems. It is not merely for aesthetic purposes. It is information that should not be separated from the board. Unique ID numbers, warning symbols, certifications etc. should be displayed on the board. At Podrain, we treat correct and comprehensive silkscreens as an integral part of the PCB.

THT vs. SMT components. 

When SMTs were developed in the 1980s they were expected to completely replace THTs. But THTs and SMTs are not always interchangeable. THTs offer reliable and useful in test and prototyping applications where frequent manual adjustments and replacements are needed. But SMTs are almost always more efficient and cost-effective. Podrain’s extensive experience in a wide range of applications gives us the expertise to know which type of components to use for a given project.

Incorrect polarity marking. 

To prevent polarised component packages from being inverted during assembly machine setup or manual soldering, accurate polarity marking is critical. It is only necessary for land patterns that have a specific rotation during assembly. Incorrect polarity markings can cause equipment damage, short-circuiting, serious injury, fires or even explosions. Podrain follows stringent Post Assembly Inspection Process protocols to visually validate that assembly insertion is done correctly

Incorrect component separation. 

Most designers are used to PCB clearance rules for spacing between traces in a single layer. However, many design houses overlook PCB clearance between layers. Today’s circuit designs often involve a single PCB with power and controls on the same substrate. This may put high-voltage traces close to low-voltage signals, creating a risk of arcing. The resulting sparks can permanently damage the port of the low-voltage component. Podrain designers and engineers keep ourselves up to date on the latest IPC-2221B design standards to ensure optimum manufacturability with minimum risk.

Podrain’s customers have brought us some interesting design challenges.

A top manufacturer of electric vehicle charging stations found that the PCBA yield was below 90%, lower than expected. The company approached Podrain to investigate. The issue was all the more challenging because the assembly was ROHS. Planning and finding the right profile, especially on a PCB that uses BGA + LGA, is an art.  By devoting our experienced people to solve this, we iterated through a range of 11 temperature profiles in a reflow oven within just 2 days to find the solution.

Another customer set us the challenge of setting the right profile for a board designed with a heavy BGA connector having multiple ceramic BGAs, including micro BGAs, on a 2mm thick PCB. The issue is these kind of connectors use very high temperature for soldering. 265 degree Celsius plus is needed for soldering but a normal BGA can tolerate only 245 to 255 degree Celsius. We designed and conducted multiple trials by changing the solder paste for each profile. After 15-20 trials supported by some fixtures, we were able to determine the best profile for the customer’s board.

Podrain has solved many such complex assembly design challenges for our customers.

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Automotive

Increasing Share of Electronics in AUTOMOBILES

Many recent news articles have pointed out the effect of semi-conductor chip shortages on automobile output. There will be 7.7 million fewer vehicles produced and over $210 billion in revenue lost in the year 2021 according to some reports.* This has taken many consumers – who don’t realize the extent of shift in automotive technology – by surprise. 

 Cars now contain more electronics than ever and their share is only growing. According to this research report from McKinsey & Company, software and electronics have become the focus of most automotive companies.  Power Electronics, growing at 15% , sensors at 8% and ECU’s /DCU’s growing at 5% plus will drive the global size of the automotive electronics industries to $469 billion by 2030. 

At Podrain Electronics we are working with automotive OEM’s and other players as they ride the wave of change. 

Automobile OEM’s are shifting gears into electronic mode:

Automobile components that were previously electrical or mechanical systems are now getting an electronic layer.  For example, we have worked with a major Indian automotive manufacturer on the prototype “anti-pinch” window sensors for their new range of SUV’s.  The electric motor, which operates the power window is fitted with a sensor that can sense any obstacle and stops the winding action. Parents of fidgety children who like to put their hands out of a window or pets who like to stick their noses out into the breeze can drive easier, knowing this technology will keep them safer.  

This example is the tip of the iceberg. Sensors are being used in engine, power, steering, braking and acceleration systems converting automobiles from electro-mechanical machines to electronic & software devices. For examples, a tire manufacturing OEM client of ours is integrating electronics to create a Tire Pressure monitoring system that will enable them to optimize tire pressure based on weight of the load, road and environment conditions.  The ability to remotely monitor the performance of their products opens up new opportunities to provide extended support , warranties and differential pricing for them.This is only one example of an OEM whose product and commercial model are changing to suit the times. 

Fleet Management & Allied Services need electronics in automobiles: 

We have supported clients for GPS and Vehicle Tracking Systems manufacture – another growing space of automobile electronics. There are several use cases for Fleet Management Solutions. They help track on-time arrival and departure of vehicles, fuel consumption, route monitoring and modification, safety tracking etc. Fleet management solutions and Asset Tracking are often done by other businesses and not by the Original Equipment Manufacturer. According to Mordor Intelligence this will be a USD 22 billion in 2026** and we certainly expect to help many of the companies in this area. 

The future of mobiility – whether you choose a traditional fossil fuel vehicle, an electric one or a hybrid – certainly involves electronics! 

If you are looking for electronics manufacturing services support for your company contact us and we will get back to you at the earliest.

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Solder Paste

Solder Paste Choice

Solder paste printing attaches surface mount devices to printed circuit boards. Over 70% of Surface Mount Technology defects are driven by solder problems.* The choice of solder paste can make a huge difference. As devices and their components become smaller, the solder connections are also correspondingly finer. Its hard to fill apertures for these small devices with coarser type 3 solder paste. Type 2 solder paste is almost never used on Printed Circuit Boards. Rather, it features in power and industrial products where the chip package is bigger.  

 

Until 2017, India had easy access only to type 3 solder paste which has 25-45 microns powder size. While it is possible to use type 3 solder paste for lead pitch between 0.3mm and 0.02mm , the reliability and durability of the boards reduces. Type 4 solder paste yields better results in our experience. We also use a Solder Paste Inspection system to ensure the right amount has been used.

 

Podrain has been sourcing and utilising type 4 solder paste, even though it entails a 20%-30% higher cost for the past 4 years. Now, we see an across the industry move to Type 4 solder paste  and even the manufacture of Type 3 solder paste is coming down. We are currently evaluating switching to type 5 solder paste which has a powder size of 15-25 microns for components that need to go on the smallest PCB’s. 

 

So when you are looking for a provider to make your PCBA’s, go beyond looking at the machines on the assembly line, and ask what solder paste is used. 

 

*Biemans. 2011. “5D solder paste inspection merits beyond 3D technology.” Global SMT and Packaging 8-13 

References

https://blog.gotopac.com/2020/03/13/solder-paste-types-powder-sizes-for-smt-dispensing/

https://scholarworks.rit.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=10208&context=theses

 

 

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Shyam and Rajesh

SiliconIndia Article

SiliconIndia

Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) constitute an integral part of many (expensive) electronic devices. The costs of failure of undertaking a full production run without adequate testing of the PCB are

very high. The ideal answer is a strong prototyping process which can help in identifying any design or performance issues. However, finding the right Electronic Manufacturing Service (EMS) partner for this early stage where volumes are small and the turnaround needs to be quick can be challenging.

Podrain Electronics, unlike other EMS providers ca- ters to this niche market of prototyping on small volume. Having high-end machines to build and test PCBA’s, Podrain caters to the complete needs and requirements of the customer. The company specializes in the supply of products with a fast turnaround without compromising on the rigor of testing. The typical customers for Podrain’s prototyping services are Start-ups and hardware design companies. “Prototyping needs us to be very flexible,” explains Shyam Chandran, CEO of Podrain Electronics. “We work most Sundays. There was one occasion when a client came in at 8 PM in the evening, wanting some- thing to be ready for a VC presentation the next day. We worked overnight. While we charge a higher price for such a quick ask, the result for our client can be priceless”, adds Shyam. The company has expertise in delivering complex assembly – BGA, PoP, LGA and other new modules that are introduced in the market. Podrain has the capability to assemble thin as well as flexible PCBs.

“Podrain Electronics caters to the niche market of prototyping on small volume.”

Rajesh Rajagopal, Director of Operations says, “We are seeing a trend for slimmer devices overall. One of our builds was for a smartwatch prototype for a leading Indi- an brand determined to deliver a world class product. We had to assemble a PCB of 0.4 mm thickness with a 0.2 mm BGA package. We constantly invest in keeping up our learning so that we can deliver the type of cutting edge products our clients design. We love this challenge

Shyam and Rajesh have both been in the EMS space for over 20 years with different organizations. They met while working for an EMS company in 2013. They put together the idea of Podrain Electronics specifically to cater to a gap they saw – an engaged EMS willing to work in the prototyping space using the type of high-end machines that the final manufacturing process will involve. In the past 3 years they have found many takers for these services. Shyam takes care of the business side, while Rajesh manages the technical and operations aspects.

The duo has big plans. Podrain is ISO 9001:2015 certified. The company has continued to invest in new- er machines including an X-Ray inspection machine. In addition to PCB assembly, Podrain does complete box build assembly. A set of reliable partners supply the plas- tic enclosures, sheet metal and cable harnesses which are then assembled, tested and packed out of Podrain. They are also doing evaluation kits for silicon chips for leading semi-conductor manufacturers.

The prototypes the company has partnered on are maturing into higher volumes and clients are requesting pro- duction support. The current location in Bommanahalli is just off the ORR and close to the start-up hubs of Koramangala, HSR Layout, Indiranagar, Jayanagar etc. But it’s pretty full. “We need to grow to keep up with our clients. We hope to start a bigger production facility in the near future. Perhaps in Electronic City, Bengaluru”, says Shy- am. And what about the original prototyping idea? Shyam further adds, “We will continue with this and start more prototype friendly units”. Rajesh continues, “Perhaps even one in Austin, Texas. The future is bright for us”.

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